APP

Synonyms

Amyloid intracellular domain 57, APP, Amyloid intracellular domain 59, PN-II, Amyloid-Beta A4 Protein, Beta-Amyloid Peptide, Alzheimer Disease, CTFgamma, ABETA, AAA, PN2, Amyloid beta-Peptides, Beta-CTF, Amyloid Beta Precursor Protein, Cerebral Vascular Amyloid Peptide, Beta-Amyloid Precursor Protein, Beta-Amyloid Peptide(1-40), Beta-Amyloid Peptide(1-42), Amyloid Beta A4 Protein, Alpha-secretase C-terminal fragment, AICD-50, S-APP-alpha, A4, S-APP-beta, Alzheimer disease amyloid protein, Abeta40, Gamma-CTF(59), Abeta42, Gamma-CTF(57), Alpha-CTF, Amyloid intracellular domain 50, AID(59), Gamma-CTF(50), AID(57), Beta-secretase C-terminal fragment, Amyloid-beta precursor protein, Amyloid precursor protein, AD1, AICD-57, Beta-APP42, APPI, Beta-APP40, AID(50), CVAP, AICD-59, Amyloid Beta (A4) Precursor Protein, Peptidase Nexin-II, Protease Nexin-II, PreA4, ABPP, Testicular Tissue Protein Li 2,

Description

Beta amyloid A4 protein as a cell surface receptor and performs physiological functions on the surface of neurons relevant to neurite growth, neuronal adhesion and axonogenesis. Interaction between APP molecules on neighboring cells promotes synaptogenesis . Involved in cell mobility and transcription regulation through protein-protein interactions. Can promote transcription activation through binding to APBB1-KAT5 and inhibits Notch signaling through interaction with Numb. Couples to apoptosis-inducing pathways such as those mediated by G(O) and JIP. Inhibits G(o) alpha ATPase activity. Acts as a kinesin I membrane receptor, mediating the axonal transport of beta-secretase and presenilin 1. By acting as a kinesin I membrane receptor, plays a role in axonal anterograde transport of cargo towards synapes in axons . Involved in copper homeostasis/oxidative stress through copper ion reduction. In vitro, copper-metallated APP induces neuronal death directly or is potentiated through Cu-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Can regulate neurite outgrowth through binding to components of the extracellular matrix such as heparin and collagen I and IV. The splice isoforms that contain the BPTI domain possess protease inhibitor activity. Induces a AGER-dependent pathway that involves activation of p38 MAPK, resulting in internalization of amyloid-beta peptide and leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured cortical neurons. Provides Cu ions for GPC1 which are required for release of nitric oxide (NO) and subsequent degradation of the heparan sulfate chains on GPC1.Amyloid-beta peptides are lipophilic metal chelators with metal-reducing activity. Bind transient metals such as copper, zinc and iron. In vitro, can reduce Cu and Fe to Cu and Fe, respectively. Amyloid-beta protein 42 is a more effective reductant than amyloid-beta protein 40. Amyloid-beta peptides bind to lipoproteins and apolipoproteins E and J in the CSF and to HDL particles in plasma, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation of lipoproteins. APP42-beta may activate mononuclear phagocytes in the brain and elicit inflammatory responses. Promotes both tau aggregation and TPK II-mediated phosphorylation. Interaction with overexpressed HADH2 leads to oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Also binds GPC1 in lipid rafts.Appicans elicit adhesion of neural cells to the extracellular matrix and may regulate neurite outgrowth in the brain.The gamma-CTF peptides as well as the caspase-cleaved peptides, including C31, are potent enhancers of neuronal apoptosis.N-APP binds TNFRSF21 triggering caspase activation and degeneration of both neuronal cell bodies (via caspase-3) and axons (via caspase-6).

KO Status

F0

Drug Information

Launched drugs: 38
Drugs in clinical trials: 9
Latest Research Phase:Approved

Drug Name

Code

Phase

Company

Indications

Clinical Trials

Florbetapir(18F)

AV-45, MNI-798

Approved

Eli Lilly And Company

Respiration Disorders, Multiple Sclerosis, Skin Diseases, Spasms, Infantile, Alzheimer Disease, Rheumatic Diseases, Parkinson Disease, Cognitive Dysfunction, Diagnostic agents, Eye Diseases, Collagen Diseases, Lewy Body Disease, Hypersensitivity, Neurodegenerative Diseases

Immune Globulin Subcutaneous (Human) (Octapharma)

Approved

Octapharma

Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases, Dermatomyositis, Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes

Chondroitin sulfate C lithium

Taishan Medical University Affiliated Hospital

Florapronol (18F)

18F-FC-119S, 18F-FC-119(S)

Approved

Korea Institute Of Radiological And Medical Sciences, Futurechem

Alzheimer Disease

Flutemetamol (18F)

AH-110690, GE-067

Approved

Ge Healthcare

Contrast agents, Alzheimer Disease, Cognitive Dysfunction, Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure

Chondroitin sulfate A lithium

Taishan Medical University Affiliated Hospital

Sodium Oligomannurarate

GV-971, 971

Approved

Shanghai Institute Of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy Of Sciences, Ocean University Of China

Alzheimer Disease, Cognitive Dysfunction

Inositol

4L6452S749

Approved

Depression, Anxiety, Diabetic Neuropathies

Immune globulin 10% (Grifols)

KIg-10, TAL-05-0002

Approved

Bayer Ag

Myasthenia Gravis, Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases, Polyradiculoneuropathy, Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating, Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes

TRV-101

TRV-101

Preclinical

Treventis Corp

Alzheimer Disease

BEY-2153

BEY-2153

Beyondbio Inc

YM-7555

YM-7555

Preclinical

Vitruvian Biomedical

Alzheimer Disease

Human normal immunoglobulin (Grifols)

XS-28

Approved

Grifols

Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases, Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic, Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome, Alzheimer Disease, Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes

ALZ-801

ALZ-801, BLU-8499, NRM-8499

Phase 3 Clinical

Alzheon

Alzheimer Disease

Gantenerumab

MAb-31, R-1450, RG-1450, R-04909832

Phase 3 Clinical

Chugai Pharmaceutical Co Ltd

Alzheimer Disease

BAN-2401

BAN-2401

Phase 3 Clinical

Bioarctic Neuroscience

Alzheimer Disease, Cognitive Dysfunction

Aducanumab

BART, NI-10, BIIB-037

Phase 3 Clinical

Neurimmune

Alzheimer Disease, Cognitive Dysfunction

Flutafuranol F-18

AZD-4694, NAV-4694, [18F]-AZD4694, [18F]-NAV4694

Phase 3 Clinical

Astrazeneca

Alzheimer Disease, Cognitive Dysfunction, Dementia

Solanezumab

LY-2062430

Phase 3 Clinical

Eli Lilly And Company

Alzheimer Disease, Cognition Disorders

Scyllitol

AZD-103, ELND-005

Phase 3 Clinical

Transition Therapeutics

Down Syndrome, Bipolar Disorder, Alzheimer Disease