PGFL, Placental Growth Factor-Like, SHGC-10760, D12S1900, PlGF-2, PIGF, Placenta growth factor, PlGF, PGF, Placental Growth Factor, Placental Growth Factor, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Related Protein


Placental growth factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PGF gene.Placental growth factor (PGF) is a member of the VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) sub-family - a key molecule in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, in particular during embryogenesis. The main source of PGF during pregnancy is the placental trophoblast. PGF is also expressed in many other tissues, including the villous trophoblast.Placental growth factor (PGF) is a protein-coding gene and a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. PGF is ultimately associated with angiogenesis. Specifically, PGF plays a role in trophoblast growth and differentiation. Trophoblast cells, specifically extravillous trophoblast cells, are responsible for invading maternal arteries. Proper development of blood vessels in the placenta is crucial for proper embryonic development. Under normal physiologic conditions, PGF is also expressed at a low level in other organs including the heart, lung, thyroid, and skeletal muscle.

KO Status

F1 (+/-)

Drug Information

Launched drugs: 2
Drugs in clinical trials: 10
Latest Research Phase: Approved

Drug Name





Clinical Trials


BAY-865321, BAT-86-5321


Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bayer Ag

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Macular Edema, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Glaucoma, Neovascular, Neoplasms, Myopia, Degenerative, Retinal Diseases, Prostatic Neoplasms, Diabetic macular oedema, Wet Macular Degeneration, Diabetes Complications, Retinal Degeneration, Retinal Vein Occlusion, Macular Degeneration, Neoplasm Metastasis, Diabetic Retinopathy, Diabetes Mellitus, Retinopathy of Prematurity


AVE-0005, BAY-865321


Sanofi, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc

Solid tumours, Ovarian Neoplasms, Lung Diseases, Ascites, Prostatic Neoplasms, Colorectal Neoplasms, Lymphoma, Lung Neoplasms, Neoplasm Metastasis

Aflibercept biosimilar (CinnaGen)(阿柏西普生物类似药(CinnaGen))

Phase 3 Clinical


Macular Degeneration

Aflibercept biosimilar (Qilu Pharmaceutical)


Phase 3 Clinical

Qilu Pharmaceutical Co Ltd

Diabetic macular oedema, Macular Degeneration



Phase 3 Clinical


Diabetic macular oedema

Ziv-aflibercept biosimiliar (Boan Biopharma)


Phase 3 Clinical

Shandong Boan Biotechnology Co Ltd

Wet Macular Degeneration, Colorectal Neoplasms, Macular Degeneration

Aflibercept Biosimilar (Boan Biopharma/Luye Pharma)


Phase 3 Clinical

Shandong Boan Biotechnology Co Ltd, Luye Pharma Group Ltd

Diabetic macular oedema, Macular Degeneration



Phase 3 Clinical


Macular Degeneration

Aflibercept biosimilar (Momenta/Mylan)

M-710, MYL-1701P

Phase 3 Clinical

Mylan, Momenta

Diabetic macular oedema

Aflibercept biosimilar (Samsung Bioepis)


Phase 3 Clinical

Samsung Bioepis

Macular Degeneration





Isolation of a human placenta cDNA coding for a protein related to the vascular permeability factor

Maglione D., Guerriero V., Viglietto G., Delli-Bovi P., Persico M.G.,

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88:9267-9271(1991)

A heparin-binding form of placenta growth factor (PlGF-2) is expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and in placenta

Hauser S.D., Weich H.A.,

Growth Factors 9:259-268(1993)

Placenta growth factor: identification and characterization of a novel isoform generated by RNA alternative splicing

Cao Y., Ji W.-R., Qi P., Rosin A., Cao Y.,

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 235:493-498(1997)

Evidence of a novel isoform of placenta growth factor (PlGF-4) expressed in human trophoblast and endothelial cells

Yang W., Ahn H., Hinrichs M., Torry R.J., Torry D.S.,

J. Reprod. Immunol. 60:53-60(2003)

The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 14

Heilig R., Eckenberg R., Petit J.-L., Fonknechten N., Da Silva C., Cattolico L., Levy M., Barbe V., De Berardinis V., Ureta-Vidal A., Pelletier E., Vico V., Anthouard V., Rowen L., Madan A., Qin S., Sun H., Du H., Weissenbach J.,

Nature 421:601-607(2003)

The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)

The MGC Project Team,

Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004)

Placenta growth factor. Potentiation of vascular endothelial growth factor bioactivity, in vitro and in vivo, and high affinity binding to Flt-1 but not to Flk-1/KDR

Park J.E., Chen H.H., Winer J., Houck K.A., Ferrara N.,

J. Biol. Chem. 269:25646-25654(1994)

Two alternative mRNAs coding for the angiogenic factor, placenta growth factor (PlGF), are transcribed from a single gene of chromosome 14

Maglione D., Guerriero V., Viglietto G., Ferraro M.G., Aprelikova O., Alitalo K., del Vecchio S., Lei K.-J., Chou J.Y., Persico M.G.,

Oncogene 8:925-931(1993)

HRG inhibits tumor growth and metastasis by inducing macrophage polarization and vessel normalization through downregulation of PlGF

Rolny C., Mazzone M., Tugues S., Laoui D., Johansson I., Coulon C., Squadrito M.L., Segura I., Li X., Knevels E., Costa S., Vinckier S., Dresselaer T., Akerud P., De Mol M., Salomaki H., Phillipson M., Wyns S., Carmeliet P.,

Cancer Cell 19:31-44(2011)

The crystal structure of human placenta growth factor-1 (PlGF-1), an angiogenic protein, at 2.0 A resolution

Iyer S., Leonidas D.D., Swaminathan G.J., Maglione D., Battisti M., Tucci M., Persico M.G., Acharya K.R.,

J. Biol. Chem. 276:12153-12161(2001)