Osteoclast differentiation factor, TRANCE, TNFSF11, TNF-related activation-induced cytokine, Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11, CD254, TNF Superfamily Member 11, Osteoprotegerin Ligand, Receptor Activator Of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand, Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily Member 11, ODF, RANKL, OPGL, CD254 Antigen, HRANKL2, TNLG6B, OPTB2, SOdf, RANK Ligand, Tumor Necrosis Factor (Ligand) Superfamily, Member 11, Receptor Activator Of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Ligand, Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand 6B


Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL), also known as tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11), TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE), osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL), and osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFSF11 gene. It is a cytokine that binds to TNFRSF11B/OPG and to TNFRSF11A/RANK.Osteoclast differentiation and activation factor. Augments the ability of dendritic cells to stimulate naive T-cell proliferation. May be an important regulator of interactions between T-cells and dendritic cells and may play a role in the regulation of the T-cell-dependent immune response. May also play an important role in enhanced bone-resorption in humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy . Induces osteoclastogenesis by activating multiple signaling pathways in osteoclast precursor cells, chief among which is induction of long lasting oscillations in the intracellular concentration of Ca (2+) resulting in the activation of NFATC1, which translocates to the nucleus and induces osteoclast-specific gene transcription to allow differentiation of osteoclasts. During osteoclast differentiation, in a TMEM64 and ATP2A2-dependent manner induces activation of CREB1 and mitochondrial ROS generation necessary for proper osteoclast generation.

KO Status

RenMab: F0

Drug Information

Launched drug: 1
Drugs in clinical trials: 23
Latest Research Phase: Approved

Drug Name





Clinical Trials


AMG-162, NSC-744010


Amgen Inc

Solid tumours, Bone metastases, Cataract, Kidney Neoplasms, Head and Neck Neoplasms, Endocrine Gland Neoplasms, Hematologic Neoplasms, Bone Diseases, Metabolic, Osteoporosis, Parathyroid Neoplasms, Carcinoma, Arthritis, Rheumatoid, Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal, Hypercalcemia, Colonic Neoplasms, Hodgkin Disease, Kidney Diseases, Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant, Multiple Myeloma, Breast Neoplasms, Prostatic Neoplasms, Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Giant Cell Tumors, Colorectal Neoplasms, Giant Cell Tumor of Bone, Bone Neoplasms, Fractures, Bone, Thyroid Neoplasms, Lung Neoplasms, Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin, Lymphoma, Neoplasm Metastasis, Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung

Denosumab biosimilar (Qilu Pharma)



Qilu Pharmaceutical Co Ltd

Bone metastases, Solid tumours, Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal

Recombinant human anti-RANKL momoclonal antibody (Qilu Pharmaceutical)

Phase 3 Clinical

Qilu Pharmaceutical Co Ltd

Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal, Neoplasms

Denosumab biosimiliar (Celltrion)


Phase 3 Clinical


Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal

Denosumab biosimilar(Fresenius Kabi)


Phase 3 Clinical

Fresenius Kabi Swissbiosim Gmbh

Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal

Denosumab biosimilar (Samsung Bioepis)


Phase 3 Clinical

Samsung Bioepis

Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal

Recombinant human anti-RANKL antibody (Jiangsu T-mab BioPharma)

MW031, MW032, TK-006

Phase 3 Clinical

Jiangsu T-Mab Bio-Pharmaceuticals Co Ltd

Bone metastases, Solid tumours, Osteoporosis, Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal, Breast Neoplasms, Bone Neoplasms

Denosumab biosimilar (AryoGen)

Phase 3 Clinical

Aryogen Biopharma

Osteoporosis, Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal

Recombinant human anti-RANKL antibody (Alphamab)


Phase 3 Clinical

Suzhou Alphamab Co Ltd

Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal



Phase 3 Clinical

Shanghai Jinmante Biological Technology Co Ltd

Bone metastases, Solid tumours, Osteoporosis, Hypercalcemia, Giant Cell Tumor of Bone





A homologue of the TNF receptor and its ligand enhance T-cell growth and dendritic-cell function

Anderson D.M., Maraskovsky E., Billingsley W.L., Dougall W.C., Tometsko M.E., Roux E.R., Teepe M.C., DuBose R.F., Cosman D., Galibert L.,

Nature 390:175-179(1997)

Osteoprotegerin ligand is a cytokine that regulates osteoclast differentiation and activation

Lacey D.L., Timms E., Tan H.-L., Kelley M.J., Dunstan C.R., Burgess T., Elliott R., Colombero A., Elliott G., Scully S., Hsu H., Sullivan J., Hawkins N., Davy E., Capparelli C., Eli A., Qian Y.-X., Kaufman S., Boyle W.J.,

Cell 93:165-176(1998)

Cancer cells responsible for humoral hypercalcemia express mRNA encoding a secreted form of ODF/TRANCE that induces osteoclast formation

Nagai M., Kyakumoto S., Sato N.,

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 269:532-536(2000)

The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)

The MGC Project Team,

Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004)

TRANCE is a novel ligand of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family that activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase in T cells

Wong B.R., Rho J., Arron J., Robinson E., Orlinick J., Chao M., Kalachikov S., Cayani E., Bartlett F.S. III, Frankel W.N., Lee S.Y., Choi Y.,

J. Biol. Chem. 272:25190-25194(1997)

Crystal structure of human RANKL complexed with its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin

Luan X., Lu Q., Jiang Y., Zhang S., Wang Q., Yuan H., Zhao W., Wang J., Wang X.,

J. Immunol. 189:245-252(2012)

Osteoclast-poor human osteopetrosis due to mutations in the gene encoding RANKL

Sobacchi C., Frattini A., Guerrini M.M., Abinun M., Pangrazio A., Susani L., Bredius R., Mancini G., Cant A., Bishop N., Grabowski P., Del Fattore A., Messina C., Errigo G., Coxon F.P., Scott D.I., Teti A., Rogers M.J., Helfrich M.H.,

Nat. Genet. 39:960-962(2007)