CD283, TLR3, Toll Like Receptor 3, Toll-Like Receptor 3, CD283 Antigen, IIAE2


Toll like receptor 3 (TLR3) also known as CD283 (cluster of differentiation 283) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR3 gene. TLR3 is the key component of innate and adaptive immunity. TLRs (Toll-like receptors) control host immune response against pathogens through recognition of molecular patterns specific to microorganisms. TLR3 is a nucleotide-sensing TLR which is activated by double-stranded RNA, a sign of viral infection. TLR3 acts via the adapter TRIF/TICAM1, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, IRF3 nuclear translocation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response.

KO Status

F2 (-/-)

Drug Information

Launched drug: 1
Drugs in clinical trials: 9
Latest Research Phase: Approved

Drug Name





Clinical Trials



Hemispherx Biopharma

HIV Infections, Influenza, Human, Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic, HIV Seropositivity


PRV-300, CNTO-3157, JNJ-42915925

Phase 2 Clinical

Centocor Ortho Biotech, Morphosys Ag

Colitis, Ulcerative, Asthma


Z-101, GLYC-101, MG-3601

Phase 2 Clinical

Kazia Therapeutics

Wounds and Injuries, Varicose Ulcer

Poly ICLC (Oncovir)

Phase 2 Clinical

National Institutes Of Health, Yamasa Corp

HIV Infections, Smallpox, Lymphoma, B-Cell, Liver Neoplasms, Ovarian Neoplasms, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse, Glioblastoma, Pancreatic Neoplasms, Cytomegalovirus Infections, Mesothelioma, Influenza, Human, Prostatic Neoplasms, Colorectal Neoplasms, Uterine Cervical Dysplasia, Glioma, Melanoma

H1N1 seasonal influenza virus vaccine (Vaxart)


Phase 2 Clinical


Influenza A virus infections, Influenza, Human

Monovalent norovirus Vaccine (Vaxart)

VXA-G1-1-NN, VXA-G1.1-NN

Phase 2 Clinical


Caliciviridae Infections



Phase 1 Clinical

Genentech Inc, Icahn School Of Medicine At Mount Sinai




Phase 1 Clinical

Morphosys Ag


Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine oral (Vaxart)


Phase 1 Clinical


Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections




Riboxx Pharmaceuticals

Virus Diseases





The molecular structure of the Toll-like receptor 3 ligand-binding domain

Bell J.K., Botos I., Hall P.R., Askins J., Shiloach J., Segal D.M., Davies D.R.,

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102:10976-10980(2005)

Crystal structure of human toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ectodomain

Choe J., Kelker M.S., Wilson I.A.,

Science 309:581-585(2005)

Lateral clustering of TLR3:dsRNA signaling units revealed by TLR3ecd:3Fabs quaternary structure

Luo J., Obmolova G., Malia T.J., Wu S.J., Duffy K.E., Marion J.D., Bell J.K., Ge P., Zhou Z.H., Teplyakov A., Zhao Y., Lamb R.J., Jordan J.L., San Mateo L.R., Sweet R.W., Gilliland G.L.,

J. Mol. Biol. 421:112-124(2012)

TLR3 deficiency in patients with herpes simplex encephalitis

Zhang S.-Y., Jouanguy E., Ugolini S., Smahi A., Elain G., Romero P., Segal D., Sancho-Shimizu V., Lorenzo L., Puel A., Picard C., Chapgier A., Plancoulaine S., Titeux M., Cognet C., von Bernuth H., Ku C.-L., Casrouge A., Casanova J.-L.,

Science 317:1522-1527(2007)

Toll-like receptor 3 and geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration

Yang Z., Stratton C., Francis P.J., Kleinman M.E., Tan P.L., Gibbs D., Tong Z., Chen H., Constantine R., Yang X., Chen Y., Zeng J., Davey L., Ma X., Hau V.S., Wang C., Harmon J., Buehler J., Zhang K.,

N. Engl. J. Med. 359:1456-1463(2008)

A common polymorphism in TLR3 confers natural resistance to HIV-1 infection

Sironi M., Biasin M., Cagliani R., Forni D., De Luca M., Saulle I., Lo Caputo S., Mazzotta F., Macias J., Pineda J.A., Caruz A., Clerici M.,

J. Immunol. 188:818-823(2012)

A family of human receptors structurally related to Drosophila Toll

Rock F.L., Hardiman G., Timans J.C., Kastelein R.A., Bazan J.F.,

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95:588-593(1998)

The innate immune facet of brain: human neurons express TLR-3 and sense viral dsRNA

Lafon M., Megret F., Lafage M., Prehaud C.,

J. Mol. Neurosci. 29:185-194(2006)

Natural selection in the TLR-related genes in the course of primate evolution

Nakajima T., Ohtani H., Satta Y., Uno Y., Akari H., Ishida T., Kimura A.,

Immunogenetics 60:727-735(2008)

Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs

Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S., Sugano S.,

Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004)