SSAO, AOC3, Amine Oxidase, Copper Containing 3, Semicarbazide-Sensitive Amine Oxidase, Copper Amine Oxidase, Amine Oxidase, Copper Containing 3 (Vascular Adhesion Protein 1), Placenta Copper Monamine Oxidase, VAP-1, Membrane primary amine oxidase, VAP1, HPAO, EC 1.4.3, Vascular adhesion protein 1, EC, Amine Oxidase Copper Containing 3, EC:


Amine oxidase, copper containing 3, also known as vascular adhesion protein (VAP-1) and HPAO is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AOC3 gene on chromosome 17. This protein is a member of the semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO; aka primary amine oxidase) family of enzymes and is associated with many vascular diseases. It has semicarbazide-sensitive (SSAO) monoamine oxidase activity and may play a role in adipogenesis. Cell adhesion protein participates in lymphocyte extravasation and recirculation by mediating the binding of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph node vascular endothelial cells in an L-selectin-independent fashion.

KO Status

RenMab: F0

Drug Information

Launched drugs: 2
Drugs in clinical trials: 6
Latest Research Phase: Approved

Drug Name





Clinical Trials

Hydralazine hydrochloride/Isosorbide Dinitrate



Arbor Pharmaceuticals

Heart Failure

Hydralazine hydrochloride



Novartis Pharma Ag

Heart Failure, Hypertension, Macular Degeneration


PXS-4728, PXS-4728A, BI-1467335

Phase 2 Clinical


Renal Insufficiency, Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Diabetic Retinopathy


PRX-167700, PRX 167700H, PRO VAP-1 inh

Phase 2 Clinical

Cambridge Biotechnology

Pain, Osteoarthritis, Knee


SI-3106, BTT-1023

Phase 2 Clinical


Arthritis, Rheumatoid, Cholangitis, Sclerosing, Psoriasis



Phase 1 Clinical

Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Osteoarthritis



Phase 1 Clinical

Terns Pharmaceuticals Inc

Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease



Phase 1 Clinical

Yaojie Ankang (Nanjing) Technology Co Ltd

Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease




Ube Industries Ltd

Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Diabetic Nephropathies

Magnesium valproate/Hydralazine hydrochloride



Uterine Cervical Neoplasms





Functional modulation of vascular adhesion protein-1 by a novel splice variant

Kaitaniemi S., Gron K., Elovaara H., Salmi M., Jalkanen S., Elima K.,

PLoS ONE 8:E54151-E54151(2013)

Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs

Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S., Sugano S.,

Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004)

DNA sequence of human chromosome 17 and analysis of rearrangement in the human lineage

Zody M.C., Garber M., Adams D.J., Sharpe T., Harrow J., Lupski J.R., Nicholson C., Searle S.M., Wilming L., Young S.K., Abouelleil A., Allen N.R., Bi W., Bloom T., Borowsky M.L., Bugalter B.E., Butler J., Chang J.L., Nusbaum C.,

Nature 440:1045-1049(2006)

The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)

The MGC Project Team,

Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004)

Vectorial proteomics reveal targeting, phosphorylation and specific fragmentation of polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) at the surface of caveolae in human adipocytes

Aboulaich N., Vainonen J.P., Stralfors P., Vener A.V.,

Biochem. J. 383:237-248(2004)

Human plasma N-glycoproteome analysis by immunoaffinity subtraction, hydrazide chemistry, and mass spectrometry

Liu T., Qian W.-J., Gritsenko M.A., Camp D.G. II, Monroe M.E., Moore R.J., Smith R.D.,

J. Proteome Res. 4:2070-2080(2005)

Adipogenesis-related increase of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase and monoamine oxidase in human adipocytes

Bour S., Daviaud D., Gres S., Lefort C., Prevot D., Zorzano A., Wabitsch M., Saulnier-Blache J.-S., Valet P., Carpene C.,

Biochimie 89:916-925(2007)

The unique substrate specificity of human AOC2, a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase

Kaitaniemi S., Elovaara H., Groen K., Kidron H., Liukkonen J., Salminen T., Salmi M., Jalkanen S., Elima K.,

Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 66:2743-2757(2009)

Cloning and sequencing of a copper-containing, topaquinone-containing monoamine oxidase from human placenta

Zhang X., McIntire W.S.,

Gene 179:279-286(1996)

Cloning of vascular adhesion protein 1 reveals a novel multifunctional adhesion molecule

Smith D.J., Salmi M., Bono P., Hellman J., Leu T., Jalkanen S.,

J. Exp. Med. 188:17-27(1998)